免责声明设为首页收藏本站

云麓园BBS

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 2047|回复: 1

李清照《声声慢》英译赏析

[复制链接]
发表于 2015-3-25 20:39:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
寻寻觅觅,
徐中杰译本:I've a sense of something missing I must seek.
林语堂译本:So dim, so dark,
杨宪益夫妇译本:Seeking, seeking,
许渊冲译本:I look for what I miss; I know not what it is.
冷冷清清,
Everything about me looks dismal and bleak.
So dense, so dull,
Chilly and quiet,
I feel so sad, so drear, So lonely, without cheer.
凄凄惨惨戚戚。
Nothing that gives me pleasure, I can find.
So damp, so dank, So dead!
Desolate, painful and miserable.
乍暖还寒时候,
Even the weather has proved most unkind.
It is warm, but abruptly it turns cold again.
The weather, now warm, now cold,
Even when it's warmer there is still a chill
最难将息。
An unbroken rest most difficult to. obtain.
Makes it harder .Than ever to forget!
It is most difficult to keep well.
How hard is it To keep me fit In this lingering cold!
三杯两盏淡酒,
Three cups of thin wine would utterly fail.
How can a few cups of thin wine
Three or two cups of light wine,
By cup on cup Of wine so dry  The ground is covered with yellow flowers, Fadedand fallen in showers.
怎敌他、晚来风急?

To cope with the rising evening gale.

Bring warmth against  The chilly winds of sunset?
How can they ward off the strong
Oh, how could I  Endure at dusk the drift Of wind so swift?
雁过也,正伤心、

Myself, into woe, a flight of wild geese has thrown.
Wild geese fly past, while I'm broken-hearted;
It breaks my heart, alas, To see the wild geese pass,
却是旧时相识。
But with them, very familiar I have grown.
I recognize the geese flying overhead: My old friends, Bring not the old memories back!
ButI recognize they are my old friends.
For they are my acquaintances of old.
满地黄花堆积,
About the ground, cluysandiernums are bestrewn.  
Gathering into heaps--bruised---withering soon.
Let fallen flowers lie where they fall.
Fallen chrysanthemums piled up on the ground,
憔悴损、
With myself in utter misery and gloom,  
So withered
而今有谁堪摘?
Who cares to save them from their approaching doom?
To what purpose .And for whom should 1 decorate?
Who would pluck them up now?
Who will pick them up now?
守着窗儿,独自怎生得黑?

Standing by the window-watching in anguish stark,
Could I bear alone the sight until it is dark?
By the window shut, Guarding it alone, To see the sky has turned so black!
Leaning on the window, How can I pass the time till night alone?
Sitting alone at the window, how Could I but quicken The pace of darkness that won't thicken?
梧桐更兼细雨,

Against the tung and plane trees, the wind rises high.
And the drizzle on the kola nut.
The drizzle falls on the wutong trees,
到黄昏、点点滴滴。
The drizzle becomes trickles, as even draws nigh.
Keeps on droning: Pit-a-pat, pit-a-pat!
Raindrops drip down at dusk.
On plane's broad leaves a fine rain drizzles As twilight grizzles.
这次第,怎一个愁字了得
!

How, in the word "Miserable", can one find-
The total effects of all these on the mind!
Is this the kind of mood and moment. To be expressed By one word "sad"?
At a time like this, What immense sorrow I must bear!
Oh, what can I do with a grief  Beyond belief!
李清照(1084-?)号易安居士,济南(今属山东)人。幼有才藻,十八岁适金石家赵明诚,夫妇感情甚笃。南渡后,赵明诚病故,她颠沛流离于江浙皖赣一带,在 孤寂中度过晚年。她工诗能文,诗尤为宋代大家,前期词多写闺情相思,后期 词融入家国之恨与身世之感,风格顿变。她兼擅令慢,每能创意出奇,以经过 提炼的口语表达其独特真切的感受,形成辛弃疾所称道的易安体
李清照是宋代著名的女词人,婉约派的代表人物,《声声慢》为其后期的一首名作,历来为人所推崇。《历朝名媛诗词》云:“玩其笔力,本自矫拔,词家少有,庶几苏、辛之亚。”《花草新编》曰“超然笔墨蹊径之外。岂独闺韩,士林中不多见也。”
声声慢之英译文虽亦时有所见,其中却以徐忠杰、林语堂、杨宪益夫妇和许渊冲 (以下简称徐、林、杨、许)的译文尤具代表性。本文旨在对四大名家的四种译文进行比较欣赏的同时,能对同好在中诗 ()英译的创造性工作时有所助益。
寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚。
乍暖还寒时候,最难将息。
三杯两盏淡酒,怎敌他、晚来风急?
雁过也,正伤心、却是旧时相识。
满地黄花堆积,憔悴损、而今有谁堪摘?
守着窗儿,独自怎生得黑?
梧桐更兼细雨,到黄昏、点点滴滴。
这次第,怎一个愁字了得!

徐中杰译本:
I've a sense of something missing I must seek.
Everything about me looks dismal and bleak.
Nothing that gives me pleasure, I can find.
Even the weather has proved most unkind.
It is warm, but abruptly it turns cold again.
An unbroken rest most difficult to. obtain.
Three cups of thin wine would utterly fail.
To cope with the rising evening gale.
Myself, into woe, a flight of wild geese has thrown.
But with them, very familiar I have grown.
About the ground, cluysandiernums are bestrewn.  
Gathering into heaps--bruised---withering soon.
With myself in utter misery and gloom,  
Who cares to save them from their approaching doom?
Standing by the window-watching in anguish stark,
Could I bear alone the sight until it is dark?
Against the tung and plane trees, the wind rises high.
The drizzle becomes trickles, as even draws nigh.
How, in the word "Miserable", can one find-
The total effects of all these on the mind!

林语堂译本:
So dim, so dark, So dense, so dull, So damp, sodank, So dead!
The weather, now warm, now cold, Makes it harder .Than ever to forget!
How can a few cups of thin wine/Bring warmth against .The chilly winds of sunset?
I recognize the geese flying overhead: My old friends, Bring not the old memories back!
Let fallen flowers lie where they fall. To what purpose .And for whom should 1 decorate?
By the window shut, Guarding it alone, To see the sky has turned so black!
And the drizzle on the kola nut. Keeps on droning: Pit-a-pat, pit-a-pat!
Is this the kind of mood and moment. To be expressed By one word "sad"?

杨宪益夫妇译本:
Seeking, seeking, Chilly and quiet, Desolate, painful and miserable.
Even when it's warmer there is still a chill It is most difficult to keep well.
Three or two cups of light wine, How can they ward off the strong
Wild geese fly past, while I'm broken-hearted; ButI recoze they are my old friends.
Fallen chrysanthemums piled up on the ground,So witheredWho would pluck them up now?
Leaning on the window, How can I pass the time till night alone?
The drizzle falls on the wutong trees, Raindrops drip down at dusk.
At a time like this, What immense sorrow I must bear!

许渊冲译本:
I look for what I miss; I know not what it is. I feel so sad, so drear, So lonely, without cheer.
How hard is it To keep me fit In this lingering cold!
By cup on cup Of wine so dry  Oh, how could I  Endure at dusk the drift Of wind so swift?
It breaks my heart, alas, To see the wild geese pass, For they are my acquaintances of old.
The ground is covered with yellow flowers, Fadedand fallen in showers.
Who will pick them up now?
Sitting alone at the window, how Could I but quicken The pace of darkness that won't thicken?
On plane's broad leaves a fine rain drizzles As twilight grizzles.
Oh, what can I do with a grief  Beyond belief!

寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚。
首韵连下十四叠字,叠音错落,气机流动,奇迹般地增强了表达效果,深化了主题,《贵耳集》(卷上)称其“此乃公孙大娘舞剑手”,《词苑丛谈》(卷三)赞曰“真似大珠小珠落玉盘也”。这种音韵之美和意境之美 (尽管是一种凄凉愁苦的意境)如何在译文中得以再现,是颇费思量的。徐氏在译文中反复运用了[S]音、[B]音和[ZI]音,原文的音美得到了一定程度的体现,但第三行“Nothing that gives me pleasure,I can find.”落得太实,原词的“寻寻觅觅”,并无宾语,诗人所寻觅的除了往日的欢乐,可能是失去的爱情和伴侣,也可能是永难寻回的青春和豪情,还可能是沦落的故国和家乡。杨译的音节数与原文大致相当,而且连用五个形容词,给人一种荡气回肠之感。许氏在第一、二行运用了相同的句式,在第三、四行使用了重复句型,并且第一、二行和第三、四行分别押韵,女主人寂苦无告的凄凉心境得到了很好的体现,但结尾处的“without cheer”略感重复累赘,有凑韵之嫌。而林氏则运用双声和头韵,生动地再现了黄昏细雨、孤苦无依的境况,而且共用十四个音节,与原词完全一致,前面用六个形容词描绘周围环境,而以“dead”一词收住,情景交融,份量极重,完美地体现了原词意思上的递进。

乍暖还寒时候,最难将息。
次两句说明当时正处于天气突然转暖,却又寒意未消、变化无常的时节,人易受到外感,最难得到将养和休息。诗人身心俱感疲惫,本应得到很好的休养,但生活的颠沛、天气的

恶劣、心境的愁苦,使她根本不能如愿。林氏把“最难将息”译成“最难忘记”,与原文的意思出入较大。许氏运用感叹句式,很好地描绘了作者的国家身世之感,但"lingering cold"
只点明了“还寒”,而未说明“乍暖”。而徐译则存在着明白有余、含蓄不足之弊。与原文意境最为贴近者,当数杨译。
三杯两盏淡酒,怎敌他、晚来风急?
这两句写风急引起了女词人的哀愁。原词运用了反问句式,徐氏以陈述句译出,语气显得较弱。林氏、杨氏和许氏都保留了反问句式,语气和原文庶几相近。“敌”字用得生动传神,以“cope with”和“endure”译出,力度似显不足。杨氏“ward off"一词可谓与原文旗鼓相当。林氏则巧用介词"against",起到了异曲同工的效果,但他以“chilly winds ofsunset”翻译“晚来风急”,则就不如徐氏的“the rising eveninggale”和许氏的“the drift of wind so swift?",因为“急”字具有动感,非用以描述静态的“chilly")f能表达的。而杨氏以“strong"与前一句的“light”相对照,也较好地再现了原词的意境。此外,许氏增译感叹词oh",使译文更具英诗风格。
雁过也,正伤心、却是旧时相识。
古时交通不便,信息难通,人们希望通过鸿雁传带书信,作者曾对大雁寄予热望。《一剪梅》云:“云中谁寄锦书来,雁字回时,月满西楼”,夫妻之间的相思渴望大雁来传递;《蝶恋花》云:“好把音信凭过雁,东莱不似蓬莱远”,姊妹之间的感情也希望鸿雁来沟通。如今丈夫己安息九泉,姊妹等亲人天各一方,可爱的家乡也沦落在金兵之手,如何指望大雁带来令人高兴的消息?难怪诗人一看到南飞的北雁就倍感伤心,何况这“雁”“却是旧时相识”,这就更添许多伤感。徐译"But with them, very familiar I have grown.”并无“旧时相识”之意,在许译中,也同样看不出从“正伤心”到“更伤心”这一情绪变化过程。应该说杨译最忠实地传达了原词中的情感递变。而林氏却独辟蹊径:诗人不但认出了从故乡飞来的州日时相识”且寄语雁子,别把往日的回忆带给自己,恐怕自己难以承受。可以说,林译比原词更富情趣,更有诗味。
满地黄花堆积,憔悴损、而今有谁堪摘?
词中的“黄花”指黄色菊花。菊花零落,不堪入目,有谁还会摘取、欣赏呢?看到眼前的情景,想想自己身世寥落,无人怜悯和同情,就如同散落在地上的菊花,作者不由得感慨万千。“憔悴损”既形容菊花的凋谢枯萎,又描述自己身体瘦弱、脸色难看。徐氏和杨氏把“黄花”译为"chrysanthemums",不妥,因为菊花品种甚多,颜色各异,"chrysanthemums”不一定指黄色的菊花。而林氏的“fallen flowers”又太笼统,人们不知其所指何花。相对而言,许译 "yellow flowers”较妥。此外,林译,"Let fallen flowers lie where they fall”只告诉人们花在飘落,并未把“满地堆积”这一层意思表达出来。徐译虽然已把原文的意思基本表述清楚,但译文显得太冗长。许译用“showers”表示黄花堆积,既形象生动,又与下句中的“now”押韵,堪称佳译,但“Who will pick them up now”却把“而今有谁堪摘”译成了“而今有谁堪拾”,宜把“up”去掉,或如杨氏用“pluck"一词也未尝不可。
    守着窗儿,独自怎生得黑?
这两句写作者冷清寂寞、百无聊赖,就连熬到天黑都觉不易。《金粟词话》称其“用浅俗之语,发清新之思,词意并工,闺情绝调”。古人对“黑”字多称其妙,《白雨斋词话》云:“‘黑’字不许第二人押”,《湘绮楼词选》云:“‘黑’韵却新,再添何字?”。林氏对原文有两处误解,其一,“守着窗儿”中的“守”字在此不宜作“守卫,守护(guard)”解,似应理解成“挨着,靠近”,不管女词人当时是站着 (徐译)、倚着 (杨译)或是坐着(许译),总之,她是在窗户边观察着屋外的景色。其二,“独自怎生得黑”是说作者寂寞愁苦,希望早一点挨到天黑,而林译则说天色已经变得漆黑了(To see the has turned so black),与原词的意境相去甚远。而且,林氏认为当时窗子是关着的(By the window shut),这一点也令人有点费解。徐译、杨译和许译较好地体现了原词的意境,尤其是许氏“how could I but quicken/The pace of darkness that won't thicken?"两句,形象生动地再现了作者寂寞冷清、度日如年的心态,无论是词语的选择,还是意境的烘托,都更胜一筹。

梧桐更兼细雨,到黄昏、点点滴滴。
秋雨洒落在梧桐叶上,引起女词人的阵阵哀愁,“点点滴滴”四个叠字,写出了秋雨的浙沥绵密,且无斧凿痕迹,再度展示了叠字的艺术魅力。杨译用词简练,忠实地再现了原文的意境和风格。徐译和许译不但保留了原文的意境,而且通过押韵体现了原词的音韵之美。但说到生动传神,当推林氏的译文。"Droning”用来描绘秋雨的低沉单调,十分恰当,而拟声词“Pit-a-pat, pit-a-pat”的运用则更令人拍案叫绝,它非常形象地描摹了“点点滴滴”的秋雨。林氏认为:“诗与散文之别,则诗人能运用语言文字之直接的传感力,使于意义之外,读者能得一种之暗示,受一种之冲动”,可以说,这一拟声词的使用基本达到了“使读者有动于中”的目的。

    这次第,怎一个愁字了得!
“冷冷清清”的环境,“乍暖还寒”的气候,“晚来风急”“又兼细雨”的天气,“满地黄花堆积”的景象,怎不叫人愁肠寸断!原文中“这次第”三字将全文一笔收住,概括了上述种种情景,“怎一个愁字了得”这一设问则不难令人想像处于国破、家败、人亡之中的作者该是何等的孤寂、痛苦、失望!四种译文通过保留原文的反问句式,如实地再现了女词人当时的心境。其中,徐译、林译、许译还借助于脚韵、头韵等语音修辞,进一步表达了原文的音韵之美。
总之,由于中英两种语言属于不同的语系,音韵上大相径庭,表达方式也有很大不同,因此,中诗 ()英译是件十分艰难的工作。体现原文的意境己属不易,要再传译原作的形式之美和音韵之美则更费思量。就 《声声慢》这首词而言,前后片的行数大致对称,前片九句,后片八句,各句长短交错,长则九字,短则三字,吟诵起来时而舒缓,时而短促,前片第一、三、五、七、九句和后片第一、二、四、六八句均押仄声韵,并于前片第一、二、三句和后片第六句创造性地运用了叠字这一语音修辞手段。上述四种译文各有所长,都堪称大家手笔,当然也不无尚需改进之处。徐译上下片各处理成十行,与原文大致相等,且押
aabbccddee
韵,大致体现了原文的形式美和音韵美,不足之处是每行音节过多,各行音节数又过于齐整,与原词不符,而且“阐释”的译法时有所见,缺乏原词的委婉含蓄之美,这样就势必淡化了诗意。杨译遣词用字十分凝练,在形式和意境上更忠实于原文,美中不足是音韵方面考虑较少,整首词基本不押韵,也少有其他语音修辞的运用。林译于音、形、意上均有顾及且不乏生动传神的译笔,有些地方甚至达到了“青出于蓝而胜于蓝”的境界,但“创译”甚多,个别地方甚至误读、误译,在忠实性上大打折扣。许译在忠实于原作的基础上,通过变通和补偿,较好地再现了原文的音美、形美和意美,译诗读起来颇具英诗风格,就总体而言似乎稍胜一筹。

   

   

   

   


 楼主| 发表于 2015-3-25 20:40:31 | 显示全部楼层
范导课上提到,看了看,略有所思
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|免责声明|更新日记|云麓团队 ( 湘ICP备05005659  

GMT+8, 2017-9-23 08:30 , Processed in 0.097139 second(s), 16 queries , Memcache On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表