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柴静雾霾真相《穹顶之下》演讲词 

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发表于 2015-4-14 20:11:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Above the haze and under the vault, we breathe the same air and we share the same destiny.
I got pregnant after major haze: I expect nothing but a healthy daughter.
Jan 2013 in Beijing,25 hazy days within a month
During the month, I went to four places for business trip: Shanxi,Henan,Jiangxi and Zhejiang. Look back the sky in video, China was subjected to major haze affecting 25 provinces and 0.6 billion people. I have symptoms in my throat and I cough so bad that I cannot even sleep, so I slice a lemon and put it aside my pillow. After I went back to Beijing, I knew I got pregnant.
The moment when I heard her heartbeat, I felt I have nothing to expect but health. However, she was diagnosed with benign tumor and shall be subject to surgery. She was taken away from me before I tried to hold her in my arms. I feel so lucky to have her in my life, so later I resigned and be around her and take care of her as long as we, a whole family, be together safe and healthy.
In the past, I’ve never got cold feet by pollution and I’ve never worn mask wherever I go. But now you hold a life in your arm, and you take charge of her breathing, eating and drinking, you become more overwhelming than you’ve ever felt .The haze had lingered for almost 2 months (at the end of 2013), which warns me that it is not a coincidence and we will never get away before long.
This is the air condition for whole 2014 year of Beijing, and only when the air grade up to good, I was able to take her outdoor, nevertheless, how many day with good air in one year? 175 polluted days, which means that I have to imprison her at home for half a year. Ten years ago, the environmental protection administrator said to me, “Xiaoyi is the miniature to Shanxi just as Shanxi is to China. “Within just a decade, I can do nothing but witnessing the formation of this fact.
Continuous 40 day air image record shows:
Tianjin 197 polluted days in 2014
Shenyang 152 polluted days in 2014
Chengdu 125 polluted days in 2014
Lanzhou 112 polluted days in 2014
Shijiazhuang 264 polluted days in 2014
Sometimes, I wake up in the morning and my daughter keep patting the glasses in front of balcony, and she try to tell me that she wants to go out. Sooner or later, she will ask me, “Mom, why do you shut me up? What is it outside, will it hurt me? Well, everything I did in this year is to answer her question in the future: what is haze? Where does it come from? What can we do about it?”
What is haze: This is a war with invisible enemies.
What is haze? Sometimes, I will turn off lights, so I can take a look. I know PM2.5 is in between, in form of grains, of which diameter less than 2.5mm according to aerodynamics. Therefore, they could reflect a big volume of visible lights and leave us a hardly visible world. This is a war that we fight with invisible enemies.
According to large quantity of samples, lots of places face with higher content of cancerogen, 20 times above the standard. All those cancerogen is attached to the black film surface, on which is called black carbon, as tiny as 0.2mu, in a chain structure. Well, how big is 2 gram black carbon when it is unfolded? It is as big as a playground, and thus it absorbs many cancerogen and heavy metal. How many black carbon like that does China have? This is an estimate volume from NASA. China is indicated by brightly purple in the graph. Black carbon is haunting above our sky, just like a ghost.
Every year, China witnesses 500,000 people die of atmospheric pollution. In a battle with human beings, the most fragile and vulnerable victims are our kids and parents, among which some kids are as young as 2 month old, they have got pneumonia and been subject to atomization inhalation treatment before they are exposed to outside world. During heavy haze on January 2013, the whole country has witnessed rapid increase of emergency treatment patients in 27 cities.
Edward Lagrence Avol(Clinical professor of preventive medicine in South California Medical University):The first day when they are exposed to pollution, their function are partially injured, and the second day, they are not injured as much as they were on the first day, however, it is not because they have “adaptability “but they have lost this partial function, the injury has come into being.
I live under the sky of northern China, and how couldn’t I realize the existence of haze within the decade? I went to Mr. Tang, leader of national Olympic air quality protection group, and she showed me this curve of 2004.
11 years ago, at that time, we haven’t had PM2.5 test but PM10, and she got the result according to estimation at that time. During the polluted period, PM2.5 could reach 300 to 400, equal to the grade of severe pollution today. However, at that time, we still think it was fog, and we also call it fog.
At that time, it is not the fact that people did not get choked by the smell, more importantly, people think much more highly of energy and warmth that coal brought. In 1980s, there are 3700 factories in Beijing, however, from the perspective of an agricultural power, which was thirsting for development, chimneys are regarded as a symbol of advance.
The past 30 years have witnessed 465% increase in lung cancer mortality, the cause of which, still, is composed of smoking and aging. Nevertheless, increasing attention is paid to carcinogenic risk caused by fine particles. In 2012, PM2.5 is listed into detection scope, and hence the state policy, Atmosphere Pollution Prevention Plan is implemented. As income increasing and information getting transparent, people hold higher expectation toward environment.
I wear mask wherever I go. Either I go to street, go shopping or go to see my friends, I will always wear mask. I seal every gap of doors and windows at home. And I am frightened by every grin of my kid when I take her to immunize. To be honest, it is not because I am so afraid of death but of living in this way. Every time when someone asks me why I feel like doing that, I could only answer him, “well, this is a personal battle between haze and I.”I need to dig out where it comes from and why on earth it happens.
Coal: Trapping China’s development after boost up China’s economy
60% of PM2.5 is caused by fossil energy combustion, such as coal and fuel oil. How much power does the combustion generate? Let’s take a look. In 2014, this value refers to the world’s combustion intensity, among which the glowing red and shiny spot indicates our country. According to the graph, it is 3 to 4 times higher than Europe. We burnt so much fossil energy. And what surprises me most is that significant chemical reaction generates under the combination between pollutant of coal and that of petrol.
The heartland of Britain industrial age is buried under the bottom of mines in South Wales, which has driven the most powerful empire of this world while it also brings a horrible black disaster. In 1960s, after the Great Smog has taken placed in London, other countries started to reduce and control coal usage. It is yet the beginning of the reform and opening-up policy implementation in China, nevertheless, for a country, which closed itself from outside world and fallen behind other countries for many years, it is time to take off with the aid of a powerful energy, and China chose coal. This is the increase curve.
Where is so much coal used ? Let’s take a look, among 3.6 billion ton coal in 2013, there are 0.38 billion ton is burnt in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, of which 0.3 billion ton is burnt in Hebei.
Xiong Yuehui(Director of Scientific Technology Standard Department of State Environmental Protection Bureau, former chief of Northern China Inspection Center):More than 60% of steel plant has neither got any approval paperwork nor compliance with environmental protection law. Whether eligible or not, all these steel plant are notified of being stopped for inspection and approval. And from the perspective of unregistered plant, they have nothing to lose. They will resort to illegal approach without hesitation. Even supervising department feel resistant to this case. Is it possible to shut down and uproot the factories? What does 10 million ton steel mean? It means 100,000 people’s employment. To what extent does Hebei’s steel industry develop? Well, it has been developed to an extent that you are not able to uproot.
China have spent 30 years on finishing the industrialization path that others did in 100 years, therefore, there are petrol pollution on the basis of coal’s. What has happened to our petrol? Most of our petrol is used for vehicle. And the past decade has witnessed an increase of almost 100 million vehicles. Among the polluted sources in local Beijing, the biggest one falls on vehicles.
The environmental protection department is not the only one feel so embarrassed and they satirized that you could even smell money in the air.
Is it because too many vehicles that leads to pollution? Beijing Transportation Committee answer me that, above 90% of people in Tokyo take train while 6% drive cars. Then how about Beijing? Well, 34% of people in Beijing drive. During peak-hour daily in Beijing, how much PM2.5 emission per hour within sixth ring road?—1 ton. How much emission do people in Beijing generate within 5 kilometer? Almost a half.
Pollution peak falls on daily early morning constantly in Beijing, and it is always 2 times higher than organic carbon emission in the afternoon the same day.What on earth is it? I want to know the answer, so we head for Yanqing.
(Take one random car as a sample)
Driver: This is before state 1.
Chai: That means there is no any emission facility
Driver: No, basically no emission control measurement
Police: Green standard
Driver: state 3
Chai: Who issues it? Environmental Protection Department of Hebei Province
Driver: The car sales person said that it is state 3, and we have no knowledge of cars, because I am just a customer.
Li Kunsheng (Vehicle Emission Administrative Office of Beijing Environmental Protection Department): massive fraud, or what’s worse, fully fraud. It is secret within the industry and 90% of the basic configuration. Provided that there are 30,000 vehicles going to the city, which means millions of vehicles running at night.
How will the emission become without any emission facility? For just one kind of particulate matter emission per vehicle, it is 500 times as much as state 4 vehicle’s, besides, the nitrogen oxide emission accounts for 70% of all vehicle’s. How much one time particulate matter does it discharge? 99%.What’s worse, the particulate matter discharged from diesel vehicle is more toxic than the ordinary one. If there is someone that has to be blamed, that must go to the responsible person of manufacturer which produced these substandard cars.
In a dozen years, if the supervising department acknowledged  that the prevailing existence of comprehensive and partial forgery, why didn’t they try to deal with it? Isn’t our law applicable? You shall be entitled to recall those cars. However, since 2004, how many time has this law been applied to this kind of vehicles? Not even once.
Ding Yan (Vehicle Pollution Research Director of Environmental Protection Department): Of course we asked, why aren’t we in the list of administrator in the Clean Air Act? Well, at the very first beginning when the Act is under discussion by the legislative council, many departments vote against it that environmental protection department supervises vehicle pollution. As a result, the Act fails to be pass, and an obscure object is put in the Act, called one that has law enforcement power.
Dingyan: However, this issue still can’t be solved. Even those cars are granted with real certificate and vehicle type is truly described. Besides, the environmental protection department has issued the green label and it is State 4 grade. No department check what type of car it is, and actually it is State 1st grade.
Not only environmental protection department but also vehicle manufacturer feel awkward. The forgery manufacturer told me that if environmental protection department would execute its enforcement power and catch those forgery cars, he guarantee of making cars up to standard immediately the second day. When I was in Yanqing, I randomly check this diesel car, which was refueled in Beijing, of course, with considerably good quality diesel, highest level in the whole state. However, as the result showed, it is 25 times as high as that of EU, Japan and US.
Petroleum enterprises all over the world will try to defend their interest within their industry, and that is the nature of a company without question.
We would be really anxious to know who sets the standard in the other countries, and this is the result that we get from research -Australia: Environmental protection department; South Korea: Environment Department; Japan: Environment department of Japan; Mexico: Environment and Natural Resource Department, and Energy Department.
Why it is petrochemical industry that play a leading role in quality standard of fuel oil for the whole state’s vehicle? The reason is based on historical background of this country. In 1960s, our petrol was in severe shortage, and a public bus was running with a gas holder on top in Changan Street. Our country has hardly ever take environmental protection index of fuel gas into consideration, neither have the environmental protection bureau been founded. The standard, therefore, is set by Scientific Research Institute of Petrochemical, which is subordinated by Department of Petrol.
In China, in addition to low petrol standard, we also have another issue that I have not thought of, that is half uncontrollable petrol.7 out of 10 major international ports are located in China. The pollution that ocean carrier brings, within 400 meters from coastline, is equal to the volume of 500,000 big trucks. As a result, 60% of sulfur dioxide comes from ships in Shenzhen.
Perhaps you live neither by harbor, nor by riverside, or by airport, but you must have met these trucks before. They are construction truck. I met them once in Heibei. At first, I thought it was a fire accident, and later when we got closer, I found that the smoke comes from those trucks. After the environmental protection bureau people proposed “Then let’s go and check.” they bought a diesel kettle and went to nearest private owned gas station. I am the last one getting off the car and only I found that his license has already been taken away by the station owner.
Owner: Law of Air Pollution Prevention?
Chai: “Environmental Protection Department has the obligation and power”
Owner: You has obligation, yes, you do, but you don’t has power.
After the owner finished this sentence, we all became speechless and we left with the diesel kettle. His response is too cruel. From coal to petrol, we know that we have so much consumption of coal and petrol, which is low quality and lack of cleaning,but we still have not take enough action to control it while discharging. I was wondering why until he told me the reason of the issue by accident.
100 yuan could be save for one ton of steel by skipping environmental protection facility installation , and 156 yuan saved per ton of coal.20,000 Yuan could be saved per truck. One time upgrade skip could save 50 billion. Ten years ago, I question what air smell like, and I did not get the answer. But now I know it, the air smells like money.
The future is created on the basis of referring to experience: How do Britain and US curb air pollution?
Cities has given us freedom and also brought prosperity for 30 years, and one day there are 300,000,000 or 400,000,000 people pouring into cities, which is inevitable and necessary. They will bring this country incredible culture and wealth.
I was concerned before that Beijing are expanding and its vehicle number are also increasing. Is it possible to reduce its pollution? Let’s look at Los Angeles, a city has similar location to Beijing, which is surrounded by mountains in 3 sides, resulting in bad environment for air diffusion. And that is why the major photochemical pollution took place there. At the same time, since 1970s, Los Angeles has witnessed increasing vehicle number, 3 times as much as before. How about the emission volume? 75% decline, but how did they make it? To get a clue, I spent some time and do some observation there.
Los Angeles, is a typical failure case of urban planning, of which transportation system is far from effective establishing and the number of vehicles is hardly under control.
13 million vehicles is owned by 17 million people, which means almost one vehicle per capita. Within one day, 850 million emission is generated and all the fuel could afford 1600 trips to moon back and forth.
As Air Resource Department of California estimates, 71% of cancerogenic substance in Southern California air is generated by diesel vehicles, therefore, all diesel vehicles are required to install DPF, which is called “particle filter”, filtering 99% of particles, just like a car wearing mask.
To curb pollution, California has to make the strictest standard for new automobiles. Environmental Protection Department is entitled to randomly inspect any new automobiles and also in-use vehicle, of which mileage is within 120,000 miles. Once manufacturers are found violation, they will be subject to USD25, 000 per day dated from the day of producing. The Environmental Protection Department is entitled to demand manufacturers of recalling all defective vehicles.
Coal accounts for 70% of energy consumption in China. How do we reduce coal usage under the current energy structure? Many people tell me that London spent 40 to 50 years curbing the pollution and so do we. But is it true? Look, from the first 10 year of curbing pollution, they reduce 80% of pollution, which is a significant improvement and let’s take a look and see how did they make it?
During the time when Great Smog haunted London, nearly 90% of energy is coal. In 1953, the average concentration of particles is 10 times over EU standard, so they are under greater pressure than we do. British people pass Law of Clean Air in 1956.
John Murlis, former inspector of Environmental Protection Department: Coal clean facility is in place for every coal mine. All coal shall be cleaned before it is sold. It is also illegal to burn coal in open fireplace. (Smoke-free zone)It is prohibited to use any facility that discharge coal smoke. Inspector of pollution control is entitled to check if any store is selling illegal fuel.
Government sponsored 70% of fireplace modification cost while the penalty is also implemented strictly. Whoever doesn’t follow the rule, could be subject to 100 pound fine or imprisonment.
Only by opening market can people enjoy a cleaner sky.
From 1960 to 1970, the first 10 year when Britain started to control pollution, Britain did not suffer economic recession, on the contrary, it has witnessed 1 time increase of GDP. And during the following 10 years, Britain stride into the age of oil and gas, and the Britain has quadrupled its economy. Britain uses cleaner energy, oil and gas, especially natural gas, which replaced coal. With these effort, they bring back a blue sky and white cloud. At that time, the GDP per capita of Britain is equal to China’s. Instead of offering subsidies to outdated and polluted industries with deficit, the most important function of government is to offer newly-developing industries equal opportunity. And you will see the surprise they create. London experience tells us that a cleaner sky could be seen once China strides from coal age to age of petrol and gas.
How many natural gas has been found? 22%.Then how many petrol has been proved? 38%, of which only 1/9 has been explored. There are plenty resources, and we know where they are while we haven’t explored? US, as the biggest natural gas manufacturing country, he owns 6300 natural gas and petrol companies, but how many do we have? 3,of which 70% are owned by one of them, that is China National Petroleum while US has 160 natural gas pipeline companies, and how many do we have?3,of which 70% is owned by one company, that is China National Petroleum.
Edward Davey(UK Secretary of Energy and Climate Change):I believe that knowledge could be shared only by opening market and the best thing could be achieved by pursuit of innovation.
It is my first time to access to energy issue of China when I was preparing the speech. The corruption map within these 2 years, however, is high prevailing area.  Liu Yinan, former director of Energy Bureau, made a comment when he was subject to court trial, “to avoid highly prevailing corruption, we should return back the power which had belonged to market. “In June 2014, Safety Strategy of National Energy of China has specified that, energy is a commodity, not only should we build an effective market structure and system, but also change the way supervised by government. Nevertheless, before a country build and improve a tremendous system, what can we do?
No matter how powerful a government is, they are still not able to solve the pollution alone, because it relies on each person, ordinary people like us, on our decision and our will. Only by unveiling information can the public be the participants. You can take a guess. How many non-profit organization that is qualified of being lawsuit subject are there in China? None, just because our civil procedure is specified, “only relevant organization is entitled to file a lawsuit, as to whom the relevant organization refers to, nobody knows. “However, since January 1st, the new environmental protection law has specified that, as long as you engage in non-profit environmental activity for more than 5 years without criminal record, you are entitled to be subject of the lawsuit. There are more than 700 environmental protection organizations now.
Keep this number in mind, 12369.If you never call, it would always just be a number only. When hazy day comes, I don’t know the path to tomorrow and to my future.
However, the moment when the restaurant owner finished the oil and smoke recycle installation, all of the sudden, I felt my feet reaches the ground and it is hard to express. Even you know the truth that it would hardly improve air pollution. Yet because of one person, who know he had done a little, the whole thing becomes better, and he feels better, too.
So when you look back, the war between human beings and pollution is started just like the way history is created by thousands of thousands of ordinary people. One day, they will say NO, I am not satisfied. I don’t want to wait neither make a concession, and I must stand out and do something. That is what I am doing right here right now.
Thousands of babies are born and nurtured, and they are entitled to enjoy rivers,  sky and land. We have no reason to take without giving. We have obligation to prove them a world can be lighted up by energy, which also could be clean and beautiful. When we are subject to severe haze, there is one thing we still could do, that is protect yourself and the people you love.
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